Google Cloud sees storm brewing over API security

On-demand deject computing company

Amazon Spider web Services, Inc.

Type of site

Subsidiary
Key people
  • Adam Selipsky (CEO)[1]
  • Stephen Schmidt (CISO)
  • Matt Garman
  • Peter DeSantis
  • Babik Parvez
  • James Hamilton
  • [two]
Industry Web service, cloud computing
Revenue Increase
US$62 billion (2021)[iii]
Operating income Increase
United states$13.5 billion (2021)[four]
Parent Amazon
Subsidiaries
  • Annapurna Labs
  • AWS Elemental
  • Squeamish Software[5]
  • Wickr
URL aws.amazon.com
Launched
  • Web services: July 2002; nineteen years agone
     (2002-07)
    [a]
  • Cloud computing: March 2006; 16 years ago
     (2006-03)
    [b]
Current status Agile

Amazon Spider web Services, Inc.
(AWS) is a subsidiary of Amazon providing on-need cloud computing platforms and APIs to individuals, companies, and governments, on a metered pay-equally-you lot-go basis. These cloud computing spider web services provide a diverseness of basic abstract technical infrastructure and distributed computing building blocks and tools. One of these services is Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), which allows users to have at their disposal a virtual cluster of computers, available all the fourth dimension, through the Cyberspace. AWS’due south virtual computers emulate most of the attributes of a real computer, including hardware key processing units (CPUs) and graphics processing units (GPUs) for processing; local/RAM memory; hard-deejay/SSD storage; a choice of operating systems; networking; and pre-loaded application software such as web servers, databases, and customer relationship management (CRM).

The AWS engineering science is implemented at server farms throughout the world, and maintained by the Amazon subsidiary. Fees are based on a combination of usage (known as a “Pay-as-you-get” model), hardware, operating system, software, or networking features chosen by the subscriber required availability, redundancy, security, and service options. Subscribers tin pay for a single virtual AWS estimator, a defended concrete estimator, or clusters of either.
[viii]
Amazon provides select portions of security for subscribers (east.g. physical security of the data centers) while other aspects of security are the responsibility of the subscriber (e.g. account management, vulnerability scanning, patching). AWS operates from many global geographical regions including six in North America.[nine]

Amazon markets AWS to subscribers as a style of obtaining big scale computing capacity more speedily and cheaply than edifice an actual concrete server farm.[ten]
All services are billed based on usage, but each service measures usage in varying ways. As of 2017, AWS owns 33% of all deject (IaaS, PaaS) while the next two competitors Microsoft Azure and Google Cloud have eighteen%, and 9% respectively, according to Synergy Group.[11]
[12]

Services

[edit]

As of 2021, AWS comprises over 200[xiii]
products and services including computing, storage, networking, database, analytics, awarding services, deployment, management, machine learning,[14]
mobile, programmer tools, RobOps and tools for the Cyberspace of Things. The virtually popular include Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Amazon Unproblematic Storage Service (Amazon S3), Amazon Connect, and AWS Lambda (a serverless function enabling serverless ETL eastward.g. betwixt instances of EC2 & S3).[fifteen]

Most services are not exposed directly to end users, but instead offer functionality through APIs for developers to use in their applications. Amazon Web Services’ offerings are accessed over HTTP, using the Remainder architectural style and Soap protocol for older APIs and exclusively JSON for newer ones.

History

[edit]


Founding (2000–2005)

[edit]

The genesis of AWS came in the early 2000s. Prior experience with building
Merchant.com, Amazon’s e-commerce-equally-a-service platform for third-party retailers to build their own web-stores, led them to pursue service-oriented compages equally a means to calibration their engineering operations[16]
[17]
[eighteen]
[19]
[20]
[21]
[22]
led by the then CTO, Allan Vermeulen.[23]

Around the aforementioned time-frame, Amazon was frustrated with the speed of its software engineering, and sought to implement various recommendations put forth past Matt Circular, an engineering leader at the time, including maximization of autonomy for engineering teams, adoption of REST, standardization of infrastructure, removal of gate-keeping decision-makers (bureaucracy), and continuous deployment. He likewise called for increasing the percentage of the time engineers spent building the software rather than doing other tasks.[24]
Amazon created “a shared IT platform” and then its engineering organizations which were spending lxx% of their time on “undifferentiated heavy-lifting” such as It and infrastructure problems could focus on client-facing innovation instead.[25]
Besides, in dealing with unusual top traffic patterns particularly during the vacation season, migrating services to commodity Linux hardware, and reliance on open source software already had Amazon’due south Infrastructure squad, led past Tom Killalea,[26]
Amazon’s commencement CISO,[27]
run their information centers and associated services in a “fast, reliable, inexpensive” style.[26]

In July 2002,
Amazon.com Web Services, managed by Colin Bryar,[28]
launched its first spider web services opening up the Amazon.com platform to all developers.[29]
Over a hundred applications were built on elevation of it past 2004.[30]
This unexpected developer involvement took Amazon by surprise and convinced them that developers were “hungry for more than.”[25]

Past the Summertime of 2003, Andy Jassy had taken over Bryar’s portfolio[31]
at Rick Dalzell’due south behest, after Vermeulen, who was Bezos’ first pick, declined the offer.[23]
Jassy after laid downwards the vision for an “Internet OS”[16]
[18]
[20]
[32]
fabricated upwards of foundational infrastructure primitives that alleviated key impediments to shipping software applications faster.[16]
[17]
[xviii]
[xx]
[22]
By fall 2003,[sixteen]
[18]
databases, storage, and compute were identified as the first set of infrastructure pieces that Amazon should launch.[16]
[eighteen]
[25]

Jeff Barr, an early on AWS employee, credits Vermeulen, Jassy, Bezos, himself, and a few others for coming upwards with the idea of what would evolve into EC2, S3, and RDS,[33]
whilst Jassy recalls that being a upshot of brainstorming for about a week with “x of the all-time engineering minds and x of the best product management minds” on nearly ten different Internet applications and the virtually archaic building blocks required to build them.[twenty]
Werner Vogels puts down Amazon’s desire to make the procedure of “invent, launch, reinvent, relaunch, kickoff over, rinse, repeat” as fast as it could be to have led them to breakup organizational structures with “two-pizza teams”[c]
and application structures with distributed systems;[d]
and that these changes ultimately paved manner for the germination of AWS[22]
and its mission “to betrayal all of the atomic-level pieces of the Amazon.com platform”.[36]
Co-ordinate to Brewster Kahle, co-founder of Alexa Internet which was acquired by Amazon in 1999, his get-go-up’southward compute infrastructure helped Amazon solve its big information problems and subsequently informed the innovations that underpinned AWS.[37]

Jassy assembled a founding team of 57 employees from a mix of engineering and business organisation backgrounds to boot-commencement these initiatives,[twenty]
[19]
with a bulk of the hires coming from exterior the visitor;[xx]
Jeff Lawson, Twilio CEO,[38]
Adam Selipsky, Tableau CEO,[39]
[40]
Mikhail Seregine,[41]
co-founder at Outschool[
citation needed
]

among them.

In late 2003, the concept for compute,[e]
which would later launch as EC2, was reformulated when Chris Pinkham and Benjamin Black presented a paper internally describing a vision for Amazon’due south retail computing infrastructure that was completely standardized, completely automatic, and would rely extensively on web services for services such every bit storage and would draw on internal work already underway. Near the cease of their paper, they mentioned the possibility of selling admission to virtual servers equally a service, proposing the company could generate revenue from the new infrastructure investment.[43]
[
unreliable source?
]

Thereafter Pinkham and lead developer Christopher Brown developed the Amazon EC2 service, with a team in Cape Town, South Africa.[44]

In November 2004, the beginning AWS infrastructure service launched for public usage: Uncomplicated Queue Service (SQS).[45]


S3, EC2, and other offset generation services (2006–2010)

[edit]

On March 14, 2006, Amazon S3 deject storage launched[46]
followed by EC2 in Baronial 2006.[47]
Andy Jassy, AWS founder and vice president in 2006, said at the time that Amazon S3 “helps free developers from worrying about where they are going to store information, whether it will be safe and secure, if it will be available when they need it, the costs associated with server maintenance, or whether they accept enough storage bachelor. Amazon S3 enables developers to focus on innovating with information, rather than figuring out how to store it.”[6]
Pi Corporation, a startup Paul Maritz co-founded, was the first beta-user of EC2 outside of Amazon,[20]
whilst Microsoft was amongst EC2’due south first enterprise customers.[48]
Later that twelvemonth, SmugMug, ane of the early AWS adopters, attributed savings of around US$400,000 in storage costs to S3.[49]
According to Vogels, S3 was congenital with 8 microservices when it launched in 2006, but had over 300 microservices by 2022.[50]

In September 2007, AWS announced annual
Start-upwards Challenge, a competition with prizes worth $100,000 for entrepreneurs and software developers based in the US using AWS services such as S3 and EC2 to build their businesses.[51]
The first edition saw participation from Justin.tv,[52]
which Amazon would subsequently acquire in 2014.[53]
Ooyala, an online media visitor,[54]
was the eventual winner.[52]

Additional AWS services from this menses include SimpleDB, Mechanical Turk, Rubberband Block Store, Elastic Beanstalk, Relational Database Service, DynamoDB, CloudWatch, Uncomplicated Workflow, CloudFront, and Availability Zones.


Growth (2010–2015)

[edit]

AWS Summit 2013 event in NYC.

In November 2010, it was reported that all of Amazon.com’southward retail sites had migrated to AWS.[55]
Prior to 2012, AWS was considered a part of Amazon.com and so its revenue was not delineated in Amazon financial statements. In that yr industry watchers for the first fourth dimension estimated AWS revenue to be over $1.5 billion.[56]

On November 27, 2012, AWS hosted its first major annual conference,
re:Invent
with focus on AWS’ partners and ecosystem,[57]
with over 150 sessions.[58]
The iii-twenty-four hour period event was held in Las Vegas because of its relatively cheaper connectivity with locations beyond the United States and the residuum of the World.[59]
Andy Jassy and Werner Vogels presented keynotes, with Jeff Bezos joining Vogels for a fireside chat.[60]
AWS opened early registrations at Usa$1099 per caput for their customers[58]
from over 190 countries.[61]
On stage with Andy Jassy at the effect which saw around 6000 attendees, Reed Hastings, CEO at Netflix, announced plans to migrate 100% of Netflix’s infrastructure to AWS.[threescore]

To support industry-wide preparation and skills standardization, AWS began offer a certification program for computer engineers, on April 30, 2013, to highlight expertise in cloud computing.[62]
Later that twelvemonth, in Oct, AWS launched
Activate, a programme for start-ups worldwide to leverage AWS credits, 3rd-party integrations, and complimentary access to AWS experts to assist build their concern.[63]

In 2014, AWS launched its partner network entitled APN (AWS Partner Network) which is focused on helping AWS-based companies grow and scale the success of their business with close collaboration and best practices.[64]
[65]

In January 2015, Amazon Spider web Services caused Annapurna Labs, an Israel-based microelectronics company reputedly for US$350–370M.[66]
[67]

In Apr 2015, Amazon.com reported AWS was profitable, with sales of $1.57 billion in the commencement quarter of the year and $265 meg of operating income. Founder Jeff Bezos described it as a fast-growing $5 billion business; analysts described information technology as “surprisingly more profitable than forecast”.[68]
In October, Amazon.com said in its Q3 earnings study that AWS’south operating income was $521 one thousand thousand, with operating margins at 25 percent. AWS’southward 2015 Q3 revenue was $2.1 billion, a 78% increment from 2014’southward Q3 revenue of $1.17 billion.[69]
2015 Q4 revenue for the AWS segment increased 69.5% y/y to $2.iv billion with 28.v% operating margin, giving AWS a $9.half-dozen billion run rate. In 2015, Gartner estimated that AWS customers are deploying 10x more than infrastructure on AWS than the combined adoption of the next 14 providers.[70]


Market leadership (2016–present)

[edit]

James Hamilton, who leads AWS’ compute, data center, and network design,[71]
wrote a retrospective commodity in 2016 to highlight the ten-year history of the online service from 2006 to 2016. Equally an early fan and outspoken proponent of the applied science, he had joined the AWS engineering squad in 2008.[72]

In 2016 Q1, acquirement was $2.57 billion with net income of $604 million, a 64% increase over 2015 Q1 that resulted in AWS being more profitable than Amazon’due south Northward American retail business for the commencement time.[73]
Jassy was thereafter promoted to CEO of the segmentation.[74]
Effectually the same time, Amazon experienced a 42% rising in stock value as a effect of increased earnings, of which AWS contributed 56% to corporate profits.[75]

AWS had $17.46 billion in annual revenue in 2017.[76]
By stop of 2020, the number had grown to $46 billion.[iii]
Reflecting the success of AWS, Jassy’s annual compensation in 2017 hit nearly $36 million.[77]

In January 2018, Amazon launched an autoscaling service on AWS.[78]
[79]

In Nov 2018, AWS announced customized ARM cores for utilize in its servers.[80]
Also in November 2018, AWS is developing ground stations to communicate with customer’s satellites.[81]

In 2019, AWS reported 37% yearly growth and accounted for 12% of Amazon’southward revenue (up from 11% in 2018).[82]

In Apr 2021, AWS reported 32% yearly growth and accounted for 32% of $41.viii billion cloud market in Q1 2021.[83]

Customer base of operations

[edit]

  • On March fourteen, 2006, Amazon said in a printing release:[6]
    “More than than 150,000 developers have signed upwardly to use Amazon Spider web Services since its inception.”
  • In November 2012, AWS hosted its first customer event in Las Vegas.[84]
  • On May 13, 2013, AWS was awarded an Agency Potency to Operate (ATO) from the U.Due south. Department of Health and Human being Services under the Federal Risk and Authorization Direction Plan.[85]
  • In October 2013, it was revealed that AWS was awarded a $600M contract with the CIA.[86]
  • During Baronial 2014, AWS received Section of Defence force-Wide provisional authorization for all U.S. Regions.[87]
  • During the 2015 re:Invent keynote, AWS disclosed that they have more than a one thousand thousand active customers every month in 190 countries, including nearly 2,000 government agencies, v,000 education institutions and more than than 17,500 nonprofits.
  • On Apr 5, 2017, AWS and DXC Technology (formed from a merger of CSC and HPE’s Enterprise Services Business organization) appear an expanded alliance to increment access of AWS features for enterprise clients in existing data centers.[88]

Notable customers include NASA,[89]
the Obama presidential campaign of 2012,[90]
and Netflix.[91]

In 2019, it was reported that more than than lxxx% of Germany’s listed DAX companies use AWS.[92]

In August 2019, the U.South. Navy said information technology moved 72,000 users from half-dozen commands to an AWS cloud organisation as a first stride toward pushing all of its data and analytics onto the deject.[93]

In 2021, DISH Network appear they will develop and launch its 5G network on AWS.[94]

In October 2021, information technology was reported that spy agencies and government departments in the UK such as GCHQ, MI5, MI6, and the Ministry building of Defence, have contracted AWS to host their classified materials.[95]

Significant service outages

[edit]

  • On Apr 20, 2011, AWS suffered a major outage. Parts of the Elastic Block Store service became “stuck” and could not fulfill read/write requests. Information technology took at least two days for service to be fully restored.[96]
  • On June 29, 2012, several websites that rely on Amazon Web Services were taken offline due to a severe storm in Northern Virginia, where AWS’ largest data center cluster is located.[97]
  • On October 22, 2012, a major outage occurred, affecting many sites such as Reddit, Foursquare, Pinterest, and others. The crusade was a memory leak bug in an operational data drove agent.[98]
  • On Dec 24, 2012, AWS suffered another outage causing websites such every bit Netflix to be unavailable for customers in the Northeastern United States.[99]
    AWS cited their Rubberband Load Balancing service as the cause.[100]
  • On February 28, 2017, AWS experienced a massive outage of S3 services in its Northern Virginia region. A majority of websites which relied on AWS S3 either hung or stalled, and Amazon reported within five hours that AWS was fully online again.[101]
    No information has been reported to have been lost due to the outage. The outage was caused by a human error made while debugging, that resulted in removing more server capacity than intended, which caused a domino effect of outages.[102]
  • On Nov 25, 2020, AWS experienced several hours of outage on the Kinesis service in N Virginia (us-east-one) region. Other services relying on Kinesis were also impacted.[103]
    [104]
  • On December 7, 2021, an outage mainly afflicted the Eastern United States, disrupting delivery service, streaming, and services such as Ticketmaster, Robinhood Markets and Coinbase.[105]

Availability and topology

[edit]

As of December 2021[update], AWS has distinct operations in 26 geographical “regions”:[9]
seven in North America, 1 in Due south America, 6 in Europe, 1 in the Middle-Eastward, 1 in Africa and 10 in Asia Pacific.

Each region is wholly independent within a single country and all of its data and services stay within the designated region.[eight]
Each region has multiple “Availability Zones”,[106]
which consist of one or more discrete information centers, each with redundant power, networking and connectivity, housed in divide facilities. Availability Zones do not automatically provide additional scalability or redundancy inside a region, since they are intentionally isolated from each other to prevent outages from spreading between Zones. Several services can operate across Availability Zones (e.g., S3, DynamoDB) while others tin can be configured to replicate across Zones to spread demand and avoid downtime from failures.

As of Dec 2014, Amazon Web Services operated an estimated 1.4 million servers beyond xi regions and 28 availability zones.[107]
The global network of AWS Edge locations consists of over 300 points of presence worldwide, including locations in North America, Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa and S America.[108]

AWS is almost to launch 24 more of their availability zones and once again separately 5 more zones in Australia (Melbourne), Canada (Calgary), Bharat (Hyderabad), Israel, New Zealand, Espana, Switzerland, and the United Arab Emirates.[9]

In 2014, AWS claimed its aim was to reach 100% renewable energy usage in the future.[109]
In the U.s.a., AWS’s partnerships with renewable free energy providers include Community Energy of Virginia, to back up the US East region;[110]
Blueprint Evolution, in January 2015, to construct and operate Amazon Wind Subcontract Fowler Ridge;[111]
Iberdrola Renewables, LLC, in July 2015, to construct and operate Amazon Air current Subcontract U.s.a. East; EDP Renewables North America, in November 2015, to construct and operate Amazon Wind Farm U.s. Central;[112]
and Tesla Motors, to use battery storage technology to address power needs in the US West (Northern California) region.[110]

Pop-upward lofts

[edit]

AWS also has “pop-up lofts” in different locations around the world.[113]
These marketplace AWS to entrepreneurs and startups in different tech industries in a physical location. Visitors tin work or relax within the loft, or larn more about what they tin do with AWS. In June 2014, AWS opened their get-go temporary pop-upward loft in San Francisco.[114]
In May 2015 they expanded to New York City,[115]
[116]
and in September 2015 expanded to Berlin.[117]
AWS opened their fourth location, in Tel Aviv from March 1, 2016, to March 22, 2016.[118]
A pop-up loft was open in London from September x to October 29, 2015.[119]
The popular-up lofts in New York[120]
and San Francisco[121]
are indefinitely closed due to the COVID-nineteen pandemic while Tokyo has remained open in a express capacity.[122]

Charitable piece of work

[edit]

In 2017, AWS launched AWS re/Beginning in the United kingdom of great britain and northern ireland to assistance young adults and military machine veterans retrain in engineering science-related skills. In partnership with the Prince’southward Trust and the Ministry of Defence (MoD), AWS will help to provide re-training opportunities for young people from disadvantaged backgrounds and sometime military personnel. AWS is working alongside a number of partner companies including Cloudreach, Sage Grouping, EDF Energy and Tesco Bank.[123]

Environmental impact

[edit]

In 2016, Greenpeace assessed major tech companies—including cloud services providers similar AWS, Microsoft, Oracle, Google, IBM, Salesforce.com and Rackspace—based on their level of “clean free energy” usage. Greenpeace evaluated companies on their mix of renewable-free energy sources; transparency; renewable-free energy commitment and policies; energy efficiency and greenhouse-gas mitigation; renewable-energy procurement; and advocacy. The group gave AWS an overall “C” class. Greenpeace credited AWS for its advances toward greener computing in recent years, its plans to launch multiple air current and solar farms beyond the United states. The organization stated that Amazon is opaque near its Carbon Footprint.[124]

In Jan 2021, AWS joined an industry pledge to reach climate neutrality of data centers by 2030, the Climate Neutral Data Centre Pact.[125]

Denaturalization protest

[edit]

US Department of Homeland Security has employed the software ATLAS, which run on Amazon Cloud. It scanned more than 16.5 million of records of naturalized Americans and flagged approximately 124.000 of them for manual analysis and review by USCIS officers regarding denaturalization.[126]
[127]
Some of the scanned information came from Terrorist Screening Database and National Crime Information Center. The algorithm and the criteria for the algorithm were secret. Amazon faced protests from its ain employees and activists for the anti-migrant collaboration with authorities.[128]

Run across besides

[edit]

  • Cloud-calculating comparison
  • Comparison of file hosting services
  • Tim Bray
  • James Gosling

Notes

[edit]


  1. ^

    Launched in July 2002, the Amazon Web Services platform exposes technology and production data from Amazon and its affiliates, enabling developers to build innovative and entrepreneurial applications on their own.[6]

  2. ^

    In 2006, Amazon Web Services (AWS) began offering IT infrastructure services to businesses in the form of web services — at present ordinarily known equally cloud calculating.[vii]

  3. ^

    A team shouldn’t exist whatever bigger than could exist fed with two pizzas.[34]

  4. ^

    Larger software applications broken downward in to smaller services.[35]

  5. ^

    lawmaking-named
    Amazon Execution Service
    in the pre-launch phase.[42]

References

[edit]


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External links

[edit]


  • Official website



Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amazon_Web_Services